THE PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.) AND COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata L.) VARIETIES IN SOILS FROM DIFFERENT AGROECOLOGICA- ZONES IN SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

Authors

  • E. A. ADUAYI
  • A. OLAYINKA
  • J. MUOGHALU

Keywords:

Available P, ECEC, exchangeable cation, dry matter yield, total N, exchangeable acidity

Abstract

A greenhouse soil culture experiment was carried out, using soil samples (0-30cm) from uncultivated land in Osun, Ondo, Edo and Delta States in South-western Nigeria, to assess the adaptability of maize and cowpea varieties to the indigenous fertility of the soils. The maize varieties were TZEComp (Early), TZPB-SR (Late) and Suwan 1-SR; while cowpea varieties were 84S-2246, TVx3236 and IT86D-721. The heights, leaf areas and dry matter yields were determined at 82 days after planting.

The soil types were Entisols in the very wet Delta States, Oxisols and Ultisols in the wet Edo State, Ultisols in the less wet Osun and Ondo State. The soils are extremely acidic in Edo and Delta States, slightly acidic in Osun and Ondo States except at Ifetedo (pH 4.4) and Ipele (pH 7.5). Organic C and total N contents were in the medium ranges. The available P, ECEC, exchangeable cation and micronutrient contents were generally low. While exchangeable acidity was lower in the basement complex than in the sedimentary zone, the reverse was the case with base saturation and extractable CL.

While maize dry matter yields were significantly correlated with available P(r=_0.99***) and exchangeable those of cowpea were significantly correlated with extractable Zn (r=0.91***), Fe(r=-0.76**) and Cu (r=-0.82**). Significant correlation (r=0.83**) was also found between dry matter yields and leaf areas of the crops. These results show the importance of soil organic matter and micronutrients in determining the performances of maize and cowpea varieties in the soils formed over basement complex and sedimentary formations

Published

2020-10-07